Patient Information Guides

Please see below for specialized patient information guides that have been prepared by Dr. Makhni. They contain helpful information for patients undergoing treatment – both operative and non-operative – for these common conditions.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tear

The ACL, also known as the "anterior cruciate ligament," is one of the most important stabilizing structures in the knee. The ACL has two main functions. The first is to prevent the tibia (shin bone) from translating too far anterior, or in front of, the femur (thigh bone). Secondly, the ACL helps stabilize the knee from a rotational perspective as well. When torn, patients often have feelings of instability of the knee, with either buckling episodes, feeling of unsteadiness, or pain.

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Shoulder Dislocations and Instability

Shoulder dislocations are common injuries in active athletes and individuals. These injuries are usually the result of a traumatic force, such as in during sport or from a fall onto the outstretched hand.

The shoulder is a "ball and socket" joint. The "ball" is the head of the humerus (arm bone), and the "socket" is the glenoid (a part of the scapula). However, there are many additional ligaments and other soft tissue structures that help keep the shoulder stable in the joint. These include ligaments between the humerus and the glenoid as well as the labrum, which is a bumper that helps keep the shoulder stable.

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Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI) and Labral Tears of the Hip

FAI, also known as femoroacetabular impingement, is a condition that can cause pain and disability in the hip joint. It is primarily due to an irregularity of the bones of the hip joint. The two main bones are the femur and the acetabulum, which form a “ball and socket” configuration.

Normally, the head of the femur comprises the “ball,” and the acetabulum comprises the “socket” of the hip joint. Both of these structures are covered by cartilage, which helps the bones glide by each other smoothly. The acetabulum is additionally surrounded by the labrum, which resembles a bumper and helps stabilize the hip joint. The figure on the right shows the normal anatomy of the hip joint.

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Obtaining second opinion from Dr. Makhni for Patients who still have pain following prior hip arthroscopy

Many patients may still have hip pain despite undergoing hip arthroscopy. There are actually many reasons why this may be the case. Please make an appointment if you would like to be evaluated for any of the following reasons:

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